He points out that syntactically identical sentences containing the items in parallel syntactic positions form good test frames for a relation of hyponymy.
Usage[ edit ] Computer science often terms this meronymy and hyponymy essay an " is-a " relationship.
The hierarchical structure of semantic fields can be mostly seen in hyponymy. Meronymy — the part-whole relation III.
We will further see that semantic relations, which are defined in terms of logical relations, underlie lexical hierarchies.
To elucidate the relation of hyponyms, I will present some more examples: Like nouns, hypernyms in verbs are words that refer to a broad category of actions. An English-to-Japanese translator presented with a phrase containing the English word brother would have to choose which Japanese word equivalent to use.
Various structuring principles can be found in all thesauri; one of the most important is taxonymy, a sub-division of hyponymy, which we will examine in I. In this case we talk about a relation of hyponymy. These semantic relations can also be used to compare semantic similarity by judging the distance between two synsets and to analyse Anaphora.
For example, verbs such as stare, gaze, view and peer can also be considered hyponyms of the verb look, which is their hypernym. If we take the latter examples we find out that not all identical sentences will give proof of a relation of hyponymy: Thus, they are incompatible.
The cases mentioned in 1. Introduction Everyday we are confronted with lexical hierarchies in our correspondences, without actually thinking about it. For instance, the word screwdriver used in the previous example refers to the tool for turning a screwand not to the drink made with vodka and orange juice.
Co-hyponyms are labelled as such when separate hyponyms share the same hypernym but are not hyponyms of one another, unless they happen to be synonymous. Hyponymy is the most frequently encoded relation among synsets used in lexical databases such as WordNet.
In ordinary dictionaries we will find an alphabetical structuring of the vocabulary of a language, but there are as well dictionaries that are conceptual, referring to lexical hierarchies as the one mentioned above.
Another aspect I am interested in is the transitivity of taxonymy and meronymy — are they transitive, and if yes, in how far do we have to restrict transitivity? All the examples work in the test: If we take the example mentioned above we see that there is a logical relation between spaniel, dog and animal.
In the final part of my paper I will draw a conclusion, containing a summary of the distinctions and similarities between taxonymy and meronymy.
Let us consider the following example: It becomes clear that the simpler a test frame is in its structure, the better it works. Strictly speaking, the meaning relation between hyponyms and hypernyms applies to lexical items of the same word class or parts of speechand holds between senses rather than words.
Nevertheless, co-hyponyms are not necessarily incompatible in all senses. A word can be both a hypernym and a hyponym:(John I. Saeed, Semantics, 2nd ed. Wiley-Blackwell, ) "In many ways, meronymy is significantly more complicated than hyponymy. The Wordnet databases specify three types of meronym relationships: (Jon Orwant, Games, Diversions, and Perl Culture.
Hyponymy and meronymy - Silvia Nulle - Term Paper - English Language and Literature Studies - Linguistics - Publish your bachelor's or master's thesis, dissertation, term paper or essayPages: Meronymy (from Greek μέρος meros, "part" and ὄνομα onoma, "name") is a semantic relation specific to linguistics, distinct from the similar meronomy.
Another definition of hyponymy is: “Hyponymy is the ‘type of’ relation among lexical items, for example rose is a hyponym of flower in that roses are types of flowers. In other words, if X is a hyponym of Y, then the extension of X is a subset of the extension of Y.
Hyponymy Meronymy. of’ relation among lexical items, for example rose is a hyponym of flower in that roses are types of flowers.
In other words, if X is a hyponym of Y, then the extension of X is a subset of the extension of Y. Thus, we can say that hyponymy is a relation of inclusion.” (Murphy ).
Hyponymy shows the relationship between a generic term (hypernym) and a specific instance of it (hyponym).
A hyponym is a word or phrase whose semantic field is more specific than its hypernym. The semantic field of a hypernym, also known as a superordinate, is broader than that of a hyponym.Download